Readers Question: What policies could be used to ease pressure on housing market?
Firstly, the main pressure in the UK housing market is the persistent and continued above inflation price increases. Back in 2004, Kate Barker’s report into housing market trends found that the UK would need to build 250,000 houses to reduce the house price inflation rate to 1.1%. But, since 2004, the UK housing market has fallen short of this target. In the middle of the recession, the number of home starts fell to just over 100,000. (Housing supply)
The Home Builders Federation claim to catch up, we would need to increase home building to 320,000 a year – something not seen in the UK since the 1950s.
Policies to ease pressure on housing market
1. New Garden cities The building of new cities, in the mode of Milton Keynes, can enable a significant increase in homes. Currently there are plans for a new city in Ebbsfleet, Kent on the high speed railway line to London.
However, from planning to completion this will take a long time. It also means building on greenbelt land, which is likely to raise objections.
2. Government subsidy / council homes. Additional government spending to subsidise the building of ‘social’ housing could help increase supply. In the past decades, council housing has fallen out of vogue as the government have sought to sell off council housing and cut back on the building of council housing. But, it was council houses which provided a significant boost to the UK’s housing stock in the post war period.
Clement Attlee’s post-war Labour government built more than a million homes, 80% of which were council houses. In recent years, local authority building of new houses has virtually ceased. It is notable that since local authorities ceased to build homes, the UK housing shortage has become more acute. Housing associations have never been able to replace the large numbers built by local authorities.
It would require a change in political commitment and the willingness to spend extra money. Also, since the Thatcher era, the notion of council housing has gained a form of social stigma. However, it could make a big difference to the number of homes built.
3. Greater flexibility in planning. Planning restrictions are quite strict in the UK. Loosening the number of restrictions and making it easier for builders will make supply more elastic. This could involve reducing the amount of protected greenbelt land. It could also involve streamlining the regulations home-builders have to meet.
However, this could lead to significant local objections as people protest about the increased building, congestion and loss of green fields. One other solution would be to provide grants for turning derelict brown field sites into new homes.
4. Incentives for local authorities
Home building is a local issue. Local authorities have to deal with opposition to home building, so there is often local political pressure to stop house building. However greater financial incentives, such as allowing the council to keep council tax receipts from new housing developments, could give them a greater motivation to allow home building.
5. Introduction of a Planning-gain Supplement scheme
At the moment, building new houses tends to give the greatest benefit to landowners. Local residents feel they just lose out – depressed house prices, loss of unique village e.t.c. One solution is to make sure local residents near new housing schemes gain some compensation in return for accepting more houses. For example, a new housing development could be accompanied with a bypass or better public transport links. This is interesting from an economic perspective as it is seeking to provide a pareto improvement (one where everyone benefits).
The difficulty is that in the real world, it can be difficult to ensure people are compensated. Some local residents may feel there is nothing to compensate for the loss of a beautiful view. People may also exaggerate how much they lose from a new housing scheme.
6. Government’s Help to to buy
The government’s help to buy scheme is controversial because it is seeking to ease the problem through helping homeowners borrow more money. Critics argue this merely fuels demand and keeps prices artificially high.
However, to some extent, the Help to Buy scheme has provided some incentive for private builders to increase supply. In particular the first part of the scheme which offers buyers an interest-free loan worth up to 20% of the value of a new-build home. This increased demand for new build homes, encourages house builders because they are more confident there will be demand for the new homes.
However, the other aspect of the scheme which enables home-buyers to gain a mortgage guarantee on buying a house with just 5% deposit has been criticised for fuelling the increase in house prices, and may be scaled back.
7. Monetary policy
Some (including the chancellor) have suggested it is the Bank of England’s responsibility to ease house prices. This could involve increasing interest rates to discourage taking out mortgages. However, as discussed in (Housing bubble?) the Bank of England is primarily responsible for inflation and economic growth. Monetary policy isn’t designed for controlling the housing market. It could cause a conflict with the economic recovery, if the Bank of England try to target house prices.
8. Discouraging buy to let / second homes
In recent years, the number of homes owned by the residents has fallen. There has been a rise in buy to let properties and people with second homes. This source of demand is a factor in pushing up prices. One policy would be to provide disincentives for buy to let and housing as an investment. This could involve a higher rate of tax (e.g. stamp duty ) on second homes. By reducing demand from this segment, house prices would be more affordable for ordinary home-buyers.
- March 21, 2013 –
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- March 21, 2013 –