Basic questions of economics

The fundamental economic problem is one of scarcity. The basic questions of economics become:

  1. What to produce?
  2. How to produce?
  3. For whom to produce?


You could also add

  • When to produce?


What to produce?

Given limited resources of labour, raw materials and time, economic agents have to decide what to produce. Most primitive economies concentrate on producing food and shelter – the basic necessities of life. However, with increased productivity, the economy has more available resources which can be used for non-necessary goods, such as leisure and education.

In a free market, production is determined by market forces. Firms and entrepreneurs will produce goods in demand by consumers. In a mixed economy, with government intervention, the government may decide to produce more public goods – which are not profitable but do improve economic welfare.

How to produce?

The entrepreneur will try and produce goods for the most profitable and cost-effective method. This motivation is behind the growth of technology and more efficient production methods, such as the assembly line. A government may regulate production methods to limit damage to the environment.

For whom to produce?

In a free market, goods are provided for those with the ability to pay. This may be through a simple barter exchange or in more advanced economies through cash payments. In more altruistic societies, we may seek to produce goods and services for those, who may not be able to afford them. For example, many western economies provide health care free at the point of use.

Other significant economic questions

Frequently asked questions

12 thoughts on “Basic questions of economics”

  1. I am trying to answer the entrance of university of economic Myanmar. So I am searching more about economic.

  2. Coefficients of income elasticity of demand provide insights into how recessions impact the sales of different consumer products. A recession is defined as two or more consecutive quarters of falling real output, and is typically characterized by rising unemployment rates, lower profits for business firms, falling consumer incomes, and weaker demand for products. In December 2007, the U.S. economy entered its tenth recession since 1950. Because of a worsening mortgage debt crisis, the recession continued through 2008 and into 2009. When recession occurs and incomes fall, coefficients of income elasticity of demand help predict which products will experience more rapid declines in demand than other products.

    Products with relatively high income elasticity coefficients are generally hit hardest by recessions. Those with low or negative income elasticity coefficients are much less affected. Products we view as essential tend to have lower income elasticity coefficients than products we view as luxuries. When our incomes fall, we cannot easily eliminated or postpone the purchase of essential products.

    question: Why did discount clothing stores suffer less than high-end clothing stores during the 2007-2009 U.S. recession?

  3. Output unit. Total cost
    1. 70
    2 90
    7. 40
    8 210
    The marginal cost is 20/= for 8 unit output
    The AFC and AVC when producing 8 units is
    AFC. AVC
    1). 6.50. 20
    2) 6.00. 20
    3). 6.25. 20
    4). 15. 30
    5). 30. 15
    Can someone plz help me find the answer ??
    I want to know the method too ….

  4. Could you help me with this question?
    “With the development of the country, many jobs are created but there is no change in population”
    1. What is the effect of this on the demand for labour?

  5. When more than required number of people are working in the same piece of land without contributing to N.I. this type of unemployment is

  6. Suppose a perfectly competitive industry can produce Roman candles at a constant marginal cost of R12 per unit. Once industry is monopolized, marginal costs rise to R16 per unit because R4 per unit must be paid to lobbyists to ensure that only this firm receives a Roman candle license. Suppose the market demand for Roman candles is given by


    And Marginal revenue curve by

    MR= 20-Q/25

    Calculate the perfectly competitive and monopoly outputs and prices

    Please help


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