Top CO2 polluters and highest per capita

co2-emissions-per-capita

The biggest absolute emissions of CO2 come from China and the United States.

top 20 co2 polluters Source: World Bank CO2 emissions (kt)

In recent years, China has accelerated past the United States and is the biggest polluter in absolute terms, (which is unsurprising given China’s population and fast economic growth. India is also catching up.)

Biggest CO2 Polluters per capita

This measures the level of CO2 per person. Thus China with the highest CO2 in absolute terms is ranked considerably lower down.

highest-co2-polluters-per-capita The highest CO2 Polluters per capita are dominated by oil producing countries who refine oil and emit CO2 in the oil extraction and refining process.

Consumption-based emissions (trade adjusted)

It is worth bearing in mind that this data shows CO2 production in a country. CO2 by consumption would look different. For example, the UK is a net importer of CO2. In recent decades, the UK has reduced CO2 emissions per capita because manufacturing has declined and we import goods from other countries. In other words, CO2 emissions are produced elsewhere but the UK enjoy the goods.

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Universal basic income – Pros and cons

universal-basic-income-pros-and-cons

A citizen’s income, basic wage or Universal basic Income (UBI) is a concept of paying everyone in society a universal benefit – regardless of income and circumstances. The main advantage is that ensures a minimum standard of income for everyone – without any costs and bureaucracy of means-tested benefits. Also, it avoids the disincentive to …

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The effect of tax cuts

laffer-curve-2018

Lower income tax rates increase the spending power of consumers and can increase aggregate demand, leading to higher economic growth (and possibly inflation). On the supply side, income tax cuts may also increase incentives to work – leading to higher productivity. However, the effect of tax cuts depends on how the tax cut is financed, …

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Does cutting corporate tax rates increase revenue?

It is argued cutting corporation tax rates can increase total tax revenue. This is because: Lower corporation tax will encourage more multinationals to invest in that country Lower tax rates enable firms to invest more – this leads to higher growth and therefore, higher tax revenues. Lower tax rates reduce the incentive for firms to …

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Polluter pays principle (PPP)

pollution-smog

The polluter pays principle  (PPP) is a basic economic idea that firms or consumers should pay for the cost of the negative externality they create. The polluter pays principle usually refers to environmental costs, but it could be extended to any external cost. In a purely free market, you would only face your private costs. …

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The economic cost of fuel duty freeze

I drive a lot and so am personally affected by fuel duty. The freezing of fuel duty in the past few years has saved me substantial money. But, as an economist I’m dissappointed the chancellor didn’t increase fuel duty. I did get my wish with a new sugar tax – rather unexpectedly, but I was …

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There’s no such thing as a free plastic bag

October 2015 will see England introduce a charge of 5p for plastic bags. Early evidence from Scotland suggests that a tax on plastic bags can lead to a significant fall in demand. Supermarkets in Scotland reported an 80% fall in use of plastic bags a month after the charge was introduced. (Times). A study in …

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Diverted profit tax

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